Background[ edit ] During the war with Spain , the M Mauser used by the Spanish Army gained a deadly reputation, particularly from the Battle of San Juan Hill where Spanish regulars significantly delayed the advance of 15, U. The Spanish soldiers inflicted 1, U. Army board of investigation was commissioned as a direct result of both battles. They recommended replacement of the Krag. The M not only replaced the various versions of the U. While the Krag had been issued in both a long rifle and carbine , the Springfield was issued only as a short inch barrel rifle in keeping with current trends in Switzerland and Great Britain to eliminate the need for both long rifles and carbines.

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Edward J. Foley of the rd Infantry, 36th Division, cleaning his MA4 sniper rifle before moving out to the front lines near Velletri, Italy, May 29, Note that most of the soldiers shown in this photo are still armed with M rifles.

National Archives Pfc. Foley was using the M73B1 telescopic site The Springfield. The MA3 was fitted with an M1 clamp-type grenade launcher for anti-tank grenades, used until the 2. Twelve different variations of the rifles were developed as sniper rifles beginning in Remington simplified manufacture with the MA3 also made by Smith-Corona.

The ". In the history of U. Anywone with even a modicum of interest in the subject is aware of the famous "United States Rifle, Caliber. Even though supplemented by large numbers of M "U. In , the semi-automatic MI Garand was standardized. Regular U.

Army units were primarily armed with the then-new. Our Spanish adversaries were equipped with late-model Mauser rifles, which had very strong actions and were capable of being clip-loaded.

The U. Krag, on the other hand, had a bolt with a single locking lug that limited the power of the cartridge, and the Krag was not easily adaptable to clip-loading. Army Ordnance Department evaluated the Mauser rifle and fabricated several prototypes based heavily on the design.

Extensive testing revealed that the modified Mauser design was a great improvement over the Krag, and, on June 19, , the "United States Magazine Rifle, Caliber. It had a 24" barrel that allowed it to be used by both the infantry and the cavalry, thus eliminating the need for separate rifles and carbines. The M was initially chambered for the "Model " cartridge, typically known as the ". This rimless ,cal. It was also fitted with a rather flimsy sliding "rod bayonet.

Nonetheless, problems were encountered with the rod bayonet and the hot-burning. President Theodore Roosevelt was a particular opponent of the rod bayonet concept and called the device " The "Bayonet, Model " was adopted in April The cessation of production was also utilized to develop improved sights, which were adopted and given the "Model of " designation.

Most of the original "rod bayonet" rifles were recalled to be retrofitted for the new M knife bayonet and sights, and production with the " improvements" resumed. Problems with the. In October , a vastly improved cartridge with a "spitzer" bullet and reformulated powder to reduce the.

With the modifications of and the adoption of the. From the time of its adoption until World War I, the M was manufactured with a craftsmanship rivaling the best custom-made sporting rifles of the era. The wood-to-metal fit and overall quality were superb, and the rifles featured finely blued metal parts and f lawlessly Grafted wooden stocks. By about , all branches of the U. The first standard-issue U. It was soon apparent that their combined production would be insufficient to arm the rapidly expanding armed forces.

A slightly modified version of the British Pattern rifle was adopted as a supplemental service rifle and given the designation "U. Rifle, Caliber. Very few MAI service rifles were manufactured in the s, and most rifles of this type were National Match and other special target rifles.

In late , the Remington Arms Co. A number of cosmetic or non-essential features were eliminated or modified. Eventually, the barrel-mounted rear sight was replaced by a simple peep sight mounted on the receiver. This final pattern was adopted as the "MA3. The MA4 was the only sniper rifle to see significant service bv the U. Army in World War II, and it was used in virtually all theaters of the war. Large numbers of Ms were issued for use as grenade launching rifles. Some of the MA4 sniper rifles remained in inventory and were rebuilt and fitted with updated telescopes, primarily the "M While the U.

Failure of Leadership, Intelligence and Preparation.


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