Historical context[ edit ] In , the established educational format in the United States of segregating black and white students into separate schools was declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Education was an important aspect of the Civil Rights Movement. The s and early s were marked by strife in the United States, from the assassination of John F. Kennedy in to the Vietnam war ongoing from until
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Historical context[ edit ] In , the established educational format in the United States of segregating black and white students into separate schools was declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Education was an important aspect of the Civil Rights Movement. The s and early s were marked by strife in the United States, from the assassination of John F. Kennedy in to the Vietnam war ongoing from until From schools being integrated to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, from Greensboro sit-ins to marches on Washington, equal rights for all was a prevalent ideal.
President John F. Kennedy showed interest in cognitive impairment studies  and President Lyndon Johnson used Federal funds to increase research on "at-risk" youth. Early intervention programs for children living in low socioeconomic situations, such as the Head Start Program, began showing up around the country.
As of the early s, U. Congress then enacted the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in to alleviate the financial burden created by litigation pursuant to the Rehabilitation Act.
Public schools were required to evaluate handicapped children and create an educational plan with parent input so as to emulate as closely as possible the educational experience of non-disabled students.
Students should be placed in the least restrictive environment, one that allows the maximum possible opportunity to interact with non-impaired students. Separate schooling may occur only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that instructional goals cannot be achieved in the regular classroom. Finally, the law contains a due-process clause that guarantees an impartial hearing to resolve conflicts between the parents of disabled children and the school system.
Honig v. Doe, U. Jefferson County Bd. Parma City Sch. An IEP must be designed to meet the unique educational needs of that child in the Least Restrictive Environment appropriate to the needs of that child. When a child qualifies for services, an IEP team is convened to design an education plan. Parents are considered to be equal members of the IEP team along with the school staff. Based on the full educational evaluation results, this team collaborates to write for the individual child an IEP that will provide a free, appropriate public education.
Department of Education, a regulations implementing IDEA requires that "to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities including children in public or private institutions or care facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled. The court in Daniel R. State Board of Education,  relying on Roncker, developed a two-part test for determining whether the LRE requirement is met: Can an appropriate education in the general education classroom with the use of supplementary aids and services be achieved satisfactorily?
If a student is placed in a more restrictive setting, is the student "integrated" to the "maximum extent appropriate"? If the evaluation is not appropriately conducted or does not monitor the information that is needed to determine placement, it is not appropriate.
Overall, the goal of appropriate evaluation is to get for students who need help the extra help that is appropriate for the student and helps that specific student to reach their goals set by the IEP team. Parents and teachers need to be willing to communicate and work together to determine the best ways of working with and providing information for a student.
Both the family and the teacher work together on the IEP team to determine goals, the LRE, and to discuss other important considerations for each individual student. Throughout the whole IEP and special education process, parents and families should be updated and kept informed of any decisions made about their specific student.
Parents should also be able to provide valuable input about their child to determine placement and other educational goals. Procedural safeguard[ edit ] Parents, as well as teachers, are able to challenge any decisions that they feel are inappropriate for the student. Mediation This is an alternative to due-process hearings. Civil litigation If due-process results are not to the liking of the parent or the school, a civil lawsuit can be filed Other important issues[ edit ] Litigation and costs[ edit ] Several U.
Parents have independent enforceable rights under the IDEA and may appear pro se on behalf of their children. Winkelman v. Parma City School District , U. Under the IDEA, the party that requests a hearing has the burden of proof in such an action. Schaffer v. Weast , U. Prevailing parents may not recover expert witness fees as part of the costs under 20 U. Arlington Central School Dist. Murphy , U. Confidentiality of information[ edit ] Throughout the entire IEP process, the school must protect the confidentiality of the student.
Transition services can be started earlier if the IEP team deems it necessary, but the student must be at the meeting or appropriate measures must be taken to account for student preference. Once a decision has been made on the transition service, a plan should be formed to allow the student to be able to fully reach this goal.
In order for this to happen, objectives, instruction needed, and other skills should be assessed and taken into account to prepare the individual for this transition. Moreover, an assessment should be made as to whether appropriate accommodations were in place to meet the needs of the child.
According to the United States Department of Education, in cases of children with disabilities who have been suspended for 10 or more days for each school year including partial days , the local education agency LEA must hold a manifestation determination hearing within 10 school days of any decision to change the placement of a child resulting from a violation of code of student conduct. The Stay Put law states that a child shall not be moved from their current placement or interim services into an alternative placement if the infraction was deemed to cause danger to other students.
However, under IDEA , if a student "brings a weapon to school or a school function; or knowingly possess, uses, or sells illegal drugs or controlled substances at school or a school function"; or causes "serious bodily injury upon another person," he or she may be placed in an interim alternate educational setting IAES for up to 45 school days.
Prohibition on mandatory medication[ edit ] Due to allegations that school officials coerced parents into administering medication such as Ritalin to their child, an amendment to the IDEA was added called prohibition on mandatory medication.
Schools may not require parents to obtain a controlled substance as a condition of:   attending school receiving an evaluation or reevaluation receiving special education services Alignment with No Child Left Behind[ edit ] The reauthorization of IDEA in revised the statute to align with the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act NCLB. NCLB allows financial incentives to states who improve their special education services and services for all students.
States who do not improve must refund these incentives to the federal government, allow parents choice of schools for their children, and abide by other provisions. Some states are still reluctant to educate students who are eligible for services under IDEA and seek remedies through the courts. In looking to align NCLB and the reauthorization of IDEA, there are a few key areas of alignment: requirement of highly qualified teachers; an establishment of goals for students with disabilities; and assessment levels for these students.
These requirements for highly qualified teachers do not always exist for private schools, elementary or secondary. A state is allowed to develop alternate or modified assessments for students in special education programs, but benchmarks and progress must still be met on these tests that indicate adequate yearly progress AYP.
In addition, these goals and assessments must be aligned similarly to students enrolled in general education. Finally, in order to make AYP, schools may additionally require that schools meet state standards of student retention in terms of dropout rates and graduate rates for their special education students.
In this Act, public schools that received federal funding were required to provide equal access to education for children with disabilities. This section of the IDEA is entitled Part C and serves children with developmental delays or children who have conditions that may lead to future developmental delays. Major changes in the regulations are detailed below: The definition of multidisciplinary has been revised to respect aspects of an updated individualized family service plan IFSP team.
Native language is the language normally used by the parents of the child for any child who is deemed limited English proficient. Such an application must specify that early identification information be provided in the native languages of various population groups in the State.
More specific details on Early Intervention requirements are found below. States provide early intervention services to the children who have medically diagnosed disabilities as well as children who exhibit developmental delays.
Some states opt to expand services to "at risk" infants and toddlers and define in state statutes what constitutes a child at risk for developmental delay. The team uses information that the family provides as well as the results of at least two evaluations, all available medical records, and the informed clinical opinion of the professionals serving on the IFSP team. An initial IFSP is then created with the family. The plan will be monitored and evaluated quarterly to gauge progress.
If the family chooses to revise the goals or the plan, they include updates as revised additions to the plan. For example, the family might have requested to receive services for the child at a day-care center or in their home.
The IEP Individualized Education Plan cannot include services to meet "family goals" but must focus solely on what the child needs to achieve academic success in an educational setting whether the class or activity is academic or extra-curricular in nature. Specifically, states can apply for grant money from IDEA for specific identification and referral programs.
Abused and neglected children are included under IDEA part C due to the growing body of evidence showing increased risk of developmental delay among children in the child welfare system.
Slightly less than half of children five and under showed developmental delay. Language skills fell almost one standard deviation below the norm as well. Overall, Fifty percent of respondents did not know whether their referrals for Part C had increased or decreased in the prior year.
Relationship between IDEA and Section [ edit ] Section of the Rehabilitation Act of is another law which assures certain protections to certain students with disabilities. Recipients of this Federal financial assistance include public school districts, institutions of higher education, and other state and local education agencies. The regulations implementing Section in the context of educational institutions appear at 34 C.
Part D. See 29 U. It also includes persons with a history of such a disability and those who are perceived to have a disability. See 34 C. The definition of disabled children expanded to include developmentally delayed children between three and nine years of age. It also required parents to attempt to resolve disputes with schools and Local Educational Agencies LEAs through mediation , and provided a process for doing so. The amendments authorized additional grants for technology, disabled infants and toddlers, parent training, and professional development.
It authorized fifteen states to implement 3-year IEPs on a trial basis when parents continually agree. More concrete provisions relating to discipline of special education students were also added. By a vote of six to three, the Court held that the IDEA authorizes reimbursement whenever a public school fails to make a free appropriate public education FAPE available to a disabled child.
Cedar Rapids Community School Dist. Garret F. Tatro, U.
Reauthorization of the IDEA 2004
It authorizes state and local aid for special education and related services for children with disabilities and contains detailed due process protections for children with disabilities and their parents. The new law preserves the basic structure and civil rights guarantees of IDEA but also makes significant changes in the law. Most provisions of P. This report will briefly discuss several of the major changes made by the reauthorization. Apling and Nancy Lee Jones. This report will not be updated.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Overview of P.L. 108-446
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA 2004)