In a nutshell, the fMRI measures the amount of oxygenated blood in the brain, giving us a hint over which area of the brain gets activated. The reason why Coca-Cola still outsells Pepsi is that people want to like Coke more. More often than not, the emotional side of the brain won out. Subliminal Advertising Can Work Some famous reports that gave vast publicity to subliminal advertising have been fabricated or exaggerated.
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Traditional marketing methods no longer work and the reasons we think we buy are deceptive. Product Integration, however, does work to an extent — if continuously brought up, focused on and emphasized subtly.
Also if only competing against a few others. This causes us to shut-down part of our brains to protect it from the onslaught of advertisements. Thus visual stimulation alone in marketing is not enough; the combination of senses sight, sound, and smells is the most effective, although the senses must compliment or they are received negatively.
Book Summary Lindstrom claims that market research is nothing but unreliable and misleading. As a result the book is set out in a series of experiments conducted to prove, disprove or explore theories surrounding what drives consumers to buy or not to buy. The brain is deceptive. The warnings apparently had no effect on putting people off smoking, instead increased their desire to.
This, the first of a series of examples, demonstrates that what we say we think or feel, is often not mirrored by our brain. Apparently the billions spent on health campaigns are actually helping the tobacco industry — 10 million cigarettes are sold every minute.
We may think we understand why we buy but looking closely at our brain suggests very differently. Emotions cloud or decisions whether consciously or subconsciously. By this was down to only 2. Ultimately, our brains are so oversaturated by advertising that we block it.
Cingular are mentioned each time callers call in to vote for their favourite contestant and Ford are the sponsoring brand features in ads during the break.
Each of the volunteers were shown a sequence of 20 product-logos which included Coke, Cingular and Ford before and after having watched an episode of American Idol and an episode of another unrelated show to act as a control.
Whilst wired up to the SST brain scan their brain activities were measured throughout. The results Results showed that after having watched American Idol, the brands featured were remembered afterwards and served to inhibit memory of the other brands. The experiment Elderly people 60 — 85 years old split into 2 groups were given a computer game to play.
During this, one group had a series of positive words e. The experiment Subjects were exposed to a millisecond image of either a smiley face or an unhappy face before pouring and paying for a drink. The result Those who viewed the happier face poured more drink and were willing to pay almost twice as much for the drink as those who saw the unhappy face. If an ad is understated, we let our guard down, and it might just have an impact.
To counter this, for e. Consumers have a sense of loyalty to a preferred brand, similar to a religious affinity, for products such as shampoo and coffee, or a biscuit, which encourages them to keep buying.
For consumers to associate a brand with a nationwide ritual, this brings with it a sense of familiarity and unity — hence keeping sales going. The experiment Fifteen nuns used in a brain scan test were asked to relive their most profound religious experience whilst scientists monitored which part of the brain was engaged in activity. They were then asked to relive an emotional experience had with another human being, and the part of the brain involved was also examined.
The result An entirely different area of the brain shows activity when a religious scenario is imagined to when an emotional encounter with another person is thought of. It was however the brands which showed the most activity in the decision making area of the brain, more so than the sports images. This makes sense as when subjected to products, we have to make choices as to whether or not we will buy them.
Other companies have also begun incorporating traits of religion and mystery into their products, e. Once the supplies ran out, the brand was reprinted without this X9 Factor. The result was thousands of complaints, sales decreased and, despite none of the customers knowing what the Factor X9 was, some claimed the shampoo no longer worked! These logos are universal, and evoke powerful associations with the companies they represent, with consumers instantaneously knowing exactly what the logo stands for.
Visual images are most effective if combined with sounds and smell for a more complete experience of the product. Examples of fragrances used already are — Honeydew Melon in Samsung to encourage electronic purchases — Meadow Grass in British Airways Business Lounge to simulate pleasant environment.
Uses of sound within the market — type of music played in supermarkets can determine type of produce bought e. Our senses are the most powerful tools we have to determine what we feel about a product, use of sight, sound and smells together will revolutionise advertising in the future. The experiment A brain scan was conducted in which subjects were shown a slideshow composed of 4 different product categories: airlines, mobile phones, software and images of London city. Along with this, a selection of signature sounds associated to the four categories were selected e.
Images unrelated to the sounds were also shown to act as controls. The sounds were played in a 10 minute series alone, followed by the images alone and then slides where a sound was played along with the image displayed. This sequence was repeated 5 times with the participants scoring from what their preferences were between sound, image or sound and image together.
The results We can recall what we see and hear much better if our sight and hearing are stimulated at the same time compared with when they are working alone. Brain activity increases, suggesting we are paying more attention, when both sight and sound is stimulated. Therefore, if a well known logo is coupled with a familiar theme tune, the consumer will be much more likely to notice and remember the product.
Colour is very powerful in connecting consumers visually with a logo or brand. Neuromarketing could be the solution to this as neuromarketing could help to determine how successful a brand will be. The experiment 4 groups of 50 men and women representing the general demographics of the US population were used in the SST brain scan. The SST scans, however, showed results that mirrored the relative successes of each show. When it came to the highly visual, multicoloured, action-packed, loud, exhausting, TV show Quizmania on paper, the majority of the subjects hated the show and voted it the one they were least likely to ever watch it again.
The experiment 60 participants were divided into 2 groups, two of which watched an episode of Sex and the City where the characters discussed their sexual prowess, and the other two groups watched an episode of Malcolm in the Middle. Then, one group from each category SATC and MITM watched adverts which were sexually suggestive and the remaining two groups watched advertisements containing no sexual connotations. The aim being to see whether sex helps consumers remember a product.
Evidently, the sexual innuendo stole their attention away from what the advert was trying to sell. The subjects were asked to mouse-click the area of the ad which first caught their gaze, indicating which part of it stood out the most.
Only 9. Sexual content in advertisements therefore was considered to have diverted their attention away from the product in question. In women the figures are similar, only Lindstrom claims that in this era, sex is so accessible and over-commercialised that it has lost its shock-value. These nerves in our brains are responsible for the feeling we get when we relate to something we are seeing or thinking about e. Trends are set due to mirror neurons such as the iPod, everyone else has one — I want one.
Dopamine is a chemical released in our brains which makes us feel a surge of happiness. This chemical is often released whilst shopping, making us feel good about purchasing a product that we see and are automatically drawn to, regardless of whether we can afford it. Seeing diamonds in the window will release dopamine as we like what we see and increase the chances of us buying it. All products in the future will be branded using brain scans prior to introducing them to the market but this will be initially very expensive and time consuming.
Despite the cost, companies are already using neuromarketing e. Finally, there is, as yet, still much to discover about the science behind why we buy — and neuroscience is leading the way. Things to think about: How accurate are these fRMI scans? The slightest of movement, or mind wandering will affect the result. Likewise is he too dogmatic in his conclusions? Share this:.
Buyology Synopsis and Chapter Summaries
Do you remember the reason you purchased it? The reason you picked that certain brand over the others? How reasonable was your decision-making process? Therefore, what precisely inspires us to purchase things? Also, what is the reason that some people like Pepsi to Coke or Ruffles to Lays? While we might give the credit to the difference to just personal preferences in taste, a closer look shows that the answer to that is much less cut and dry, and goes really deeper.
Buyology by Martin Lindstrom [Book Summary]
Traditional marketing methods no longer work and the reasons we think we buy are deceptive. Product Integration, however, does work to an extent — if continuously brought up, focused on and emphasized subtly. Also if only competing against a few others. This causes us to shut-down part of our brains to protect it from the onslaught of advertisements.
Buyology: Truth and Lies About Why We Buy – Buyology Book Summary
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